The aspect ratio for standard-definition (SD) broadcast video. The ratio of the width to the height of the visible area of the video frame is 4:3, or 1.33. See also standard-definition (SD).
A widescreen aspect ratio for video. The ratio of the width to the height of the visible area of the video frame is 16:9, or 1.78. The 16:9 aspect ratio is used for high-definition (HD) video. See also high-definition (HD).
- AAC (Advanced Audio Coding)
Also called MPEG-4 Audio. A standard way of compressing and encoding digital audio. AAC-encoded files rival the quality of audio CDs and generally sound as good as or better than MP3 files encoded at the same or even a higher bit rate.
- AC3 (Audio Codec 3, Advanced Codec 3, Acoustic Coder 3)
A Dolby Digital compressed audio format often used for encoding surround sound.
- AIFF (Audio Interchange File Format)
A cross-platform audio file format developed by Apple. Like WAV files, AIFF files contain “chunks” of information, such as the Sound Data Chunk, which contains the actual sample data, and the Common Chunk, which contains sample rate and bit depth information.
- alpha channel
An image channel in addition to the R, G, and B (red, green, and blue) color channels that is used to store transparency information for compositing. Alpha channels are often 8-bit, but some applications support 16-bit alpha channels. In Final Cut Pro, black represents 100 percent transparency, and white represents 100 percent opacity. Only certain formats support alpha channels. Examples are Targa, TIFF, PNG, PSD, Apple ProRes 4444, and the QuickTime Animation codec. See also compositing, RGB.
- angle editor
You can open multicam clips in the angle editor to adjust the sync and the angle order, or to add or delete angles. You can also use the angle editor to make edits to the individual clips inside a multicam clip (such as trimming, making color corrections, adding transitions, and so on). See also multicam clip.
- angle viewer
A viewer used to watch all angles of a multicam clip simultaneously while switching or cutting to different angles in real time. You can cut and switch video and audio at the same time or independently. For example, you can use the audio from angle 1 while switching the video between angles 1 to 4. See also multicam clip.
- animation editors
- Apple ProRes
Apple codecs that provide an unparalleled combination of multistream, real-time editing performance, impressive image quality, and reduced storage rates. Apple ProRes codecs take full advantage of multicore processing and feature fast, reduced-resolution decoding modes. All Apple ProRes codecs support any frame size (including SD, HD, 2K, 4K, and 6K) at full resolution. The data rates vary based on codec type, image content, frame size, and frame rate. See also frame rate, resolution.
- Apple ProRes 4444 XQ
The highest-quality version of Apple ProRes for 4:4:4:4 image sources (including alpha channels), with a very high data rate to preserve the detail in high-dynamic-range imagery generated by the highest-quality digital image sensors. Apple ProRes 4444 XQ preserves dynamic ranges several times greater than the dynamic range of Rec. 709 imagery—even against the rigors of extreme visual effects processing, in which tone-scale blacks or highlights are stretched significantly. Like standard Apple ProRes 4444, this codec supports up to 12 bits per image channel and up to 16 bits for the alpha channel. Apple ProRes 4444 XQ features a target data rate of approximately 500 Mbps for 4:4:4 sources at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps.
- Apple ProRes 4444
An extremely high-quality version of Apple ProRes for 4:4:4:4 image sources (including alpha channels). This codec features full-resolution, mastering-quality 4:4:4:4 RGBA color and visual fidelity that is perceptually indistinguishable from the original material. Apple ProRes 4444 is a high-quality solution for storing and exchanging motion graphics and composites, with excellent multigeneration performance and a mathematically lossless alpha channel up to 16 bits. This codec features a remarkably low data rate compared to uncompressed 4:4:4 HD, with a target data rate of approximately 330 Mbps for 4:4:4 sources at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps. It also offers direct encoding of, and decoding to, both RGB and Y'CbCr pixel formats.
- Apple ProRes 422 HQ
A higher-data-rate version of Apple ProRes 422 that preserves visual quality at the same high level as Apple ProRes 4444, but for 4:2:2 image sources. With widespread adoption across the video post-production industry, Apple ProRes 422 HQ offers visually lossless preservation of the highest-quality professional HD video that a single-link HD-SDI signal can carry. This codec supports full-width, 4:2:2 video sources at 10-bit pixel depths, while remaining visually lossless through many generations of decoding and reencoding. The target data rate of Apple ProRes 422 HQ is approximately 220 Mbps at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps.
- Apple ProRes 422
A high-quality compressed codec offering nearly all the benefits of Apple ProRes 422 HQ, but at 66 percent of the data rate for even better multistream, real-time editing performance. The target data rate of Apple ProRes 422 is approximately 147 Mbps at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps.
- Apple ProRes 422 LT
A more highly compressed codec than Apple ProRes 422, with roughly 70 percent of the data rate and 30 percent smaller file sizes. This codec is perfect for environments where storage capacity and data rate are at a premium. The target data rate of Apple ProRes 422 LT is approximately 102 Mbps at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps.
- Apple ProRes 422 Proxy
An even more highly compressed codec than Apple ProRes 422 LT, intended for use in offline workflows that require low data rates but full-resolution video. The target data rate of Apple ProRes 422 Proxy is approximately 45 Mbps at 1920 x 1080 and 29.97 fps.
- Apple ProRes RAW
The Apple ProRes RAW and Apple ProRes RAW HQ codecs preserve all of the camera sensor’s pristine raw data to deliver extraordinarily high-quality images. ProRes RAW brings to raw video the same great performance, quality, and ease of use that ProRes has brought to conventional video, in a format ideal for HDR content creation. Being able to use the raw image sensor data directly in Final Cut Pro during post-production gives you more control over the processing of the image, including demosaicing, linear-to-log conversions, and custom LUTs.
- aspect ratio
A film or video frame’s width-to-height ratio on any viewing screen. Standard-definition (SD) video (used for regular television screens) has an aspect ratio of 4:3. High-definition (HD) video has an aspect ratio of 16:9.
- Audio Animation editor
You can show the Audio Animation editor for clips in the timeline to adjust effect parameters, create fade-ins or fade-outs, or change effects over time using keyframes. See also keyframe, Video Animation editor.
- audio components
Audio files can contain a single audio channel or multiple audio channels. Final Cut Pro automatically groups audio channels into audio components according to how the channels are configured for the clip. In Final Cut Pro, you can expand the audio portion of clips to view and edit audio components down to the individual channel level.
- audio sample rate
The number of times an audio signal is measured, or sampled, per second. A higher sample rate produces higher-quality audio and larger file sizes, and a lower sample rate produces lower-quality audio and smaller file sizes.
- Audio Units
The standard real-time audio effect format for audio applications used with macOS.
- audio waveforms
Visual representations of the actual sound. An audio waveform’s amplitude and length change according to the underlying sound’s volume and duration. A short, loud sound such as a drum beat has a sharp, peaked waveform, whereas low-level crowd noise has a lower, more uniform waveform. These properties make it easier to find specific edit points when trimming clips or keyframing effects.
In Final Cut Pro, you can organize related clips into sets, called auditions, from which you can choose one clip to use. You can create an audition composed of different clips to try out multiple takes, or you can create an audition composed of multiple versions of the same clip to preview different effects. Auditions appear in the browser and timeline as clips with an audition icon in the top-left corner.
- automatic audio sync
The “Use audio for synchronization” option in the multicam clip creation process makes precision sync adjustments using audio waveforms in the angles of a multicam clip. This is the same audio sync technology that you can use to automatically analyze and sync clips together into a compound clip. See also compound clip, multicam clip.
A high-definition (HD) video format that uses Advanced Video Coding (AVC) compression (also known as MPEG-4 part 10 or H.264). Many Blu-ray players can play red laser discs with AVCHD format content, making this a common way to distribute short HD video projects using a standard red laser disc.
- Background Tasks window
A window in Final Cut Pro that shows the progress of importing, transcoding, analysis, rendering, sharing, and other tasks performed in the background.
Compressor uses a batch to contain one or more source media files that you want to convert, or transcode, to another format. Each source media file creates its own job. This means that a batch can contain multiple jobs, with each job based on its own source media file. Each job also has at least one setting that defines the format of the transcoded file. See also source media files.
- batch share
A feature in Final Cut Pro that allows you to share multiple projects, clips, or ranges in a single export.
- Bezier curve
A parametric curve used to create smooth movement for keyframes and animated objects and to create precise, detailed mask shapes. Bezier curves contain two kinds of points: smooth points with handles that can be manipulated to curve the adjacent line segment, and corner points that have no handles and therefore have straight (or linear) adjacent line segments.
- bit rate
The number of bits that are processed or transmitted per unit of time. The higher the bit rate, the better the quality. However, higher bit rates require larger file sizes.
- Blade tool
The editing tool that allows you to cut clips in the timeline. You can select the Blade tool by pressing the B key.
- blue laser media
Blu-ray burners and players use a blue laser when working with Blu-ray media. The blue laser has a shorter wavelength than the red laser used for DVDs, making it possible to store more data on a disc. See also red laser media.
- blue or green screening
See chroma key.
Broadcast facilities have limits on the maximum values of luma and chroma that are allowable for broadcast. If a video exceeds these limits, distortion can appear, resulting in unacceptable transmission quality. You can use the Final Cut Pro video scopes to make sure that the luma and chroma levels you set stay within acceptable limits. See also chroma, luma.
A term used to describe alternative footage shot to intercut with the primary shots used in a program. B-roll is frequently used for cutaway shots. See also cutaway shot.
The browser displays clips, projects, photos, titles, or generators for the item selected in the sidebar (such as an event containing clips, or a category of sound effects or 3D titles). You select items in the browser to work with them. You can sort or group items in the browser by creation date, name, and duration. You can also view your clips as filmstrips or in a list. See also sidebar.
- burn in
To make a visible and permanent change to an output media file. For example, titles are burned in. In contrast, captions can be included in the output media file without being permanently visible in the video image.
- BWF (Broadcast Wave Format)
An extension of the WAV file format that includes additional metadata such as timecode and production information.
- CAF (Core Audio Format)
Apple’s Core Audio Format (CAF) is a flexible file format for storing and manipulating digital audio data. It is fully supported by Core Audio APIs on Mac OS X 10.4 or later and on Mac OS X 10.3 with QuickTime 7 or later. CAF provides high performance and flexibility, and is scalable to future ultra-high-resolution audio recording, editing, and playback.
Also known as EIA-608. A caption standard for broadcasts and web video. The CEA-608 caption standard features a variety of position, formatting, color, and animation options. CEA-608 captions can be imported or exported as separate files or as tracks embedded in a media file. CEA-608 caption files have the filename extension .scc.
The color information contained in a video signal, consisting of hue, which represents the color itself, and saturation, which represents the intensity of the color.
- chroma key
A special effects technique that allows you to derive an alpha channel or matte from the blue or green background of a video clip in order to make it transparent (so that it can be composited against other clips). Blue- or green-screen technology is what makes weather forecasters appear to be standing against an animated map, when in reality they’re standing in front of a blue or green wall. Also known as blue or green screening. See also alpha channel.
The exact values a display uses to represent each of the three primary colors. Different displays use different primary values. Because all colors represented by a particular display are a mix of the three primary colors, if the three primary points vary from display to display, the entire gamut of color shifts.
The term used to describe a video or audio asset, especially after it has been imported into Final Cut Pro. Clips appear in the browser and the timeline. Clips in Final Cut Pro point to (link to) source media files stored on your Mac or a connected storage device. When you modify a clip, you’re not modifying the media file, just the clip’s information in Final Cut Pro. This is known as nondestructive editing.
Distortion occurring during the playback or recording of digital audio because of a signal that exceeds the maximum sample value of 0 dBFS.
- clip selection
A selection of whole clips in the browser or the timeline. In contrast to a range selection, a clip selection is limited to clip boundaries. You can’t adjust a clip selection to include portions of clips. However, you can add or remove whole clips.
Short for compressor/decompressor, or encode/decode. A software component used to translate video or audio from its current form to the digital compressed form in which it is stored on a computer or storage device. DV, Photo JPEG, and Apple ProRes are common QuickTime video codecs.
- color balance
Refers to the mix of red, green, and blue in a clip. In Final Cut Pro, you can adjust the color balance of the highlights (bright areas), midtones, or shadows (dark areas) of your clip.
- color bars
A standard color test signal displayed as columns, often accompanied by a reference audio tone. Color bars are used to adjust the video signal of the incoming source to maintain proper color from import through output.
- Color Board
The Color Board allows you to manually adjust a clip’s color properties. It contains separate panes for adding or subtracting a color tint, controlling the intensity of the color, and controlling the brightness of the video. In addition to an overall control, each pane has individual controls for the highlight, midtone, and shadow areas of the image.
- color cast
An unwanted color tint in the image, usually caused by lighting issues.
- color correction
A process in which the color of clips used in an edited program is evened out so that all shots in a given scene match. Color correction is generally one of the last steps in finishing an edited program. The color correction tools in Final Cut Pro give you precise control over the look of every clip in your project by allowing you to adjust the color balance, black levels, midtones, and white levels of individual clips.
- color difference
In video formats that store color information in the Y'CbCr color space, color channels are derived by subtracting Y (luma) from the R (red) and B (blue) signals and are sometimes referred to generally as B-Y and R-Y. See also Y'CbCr.
- Color inspector
You use the Color inspector to perform manual color corrections using the four color correction effects: Color Board, Color Wheels, Color Curves, and Hue/Saturation Curves.
A process in which two or more images are combined into a single frame. This term can also describe the process of creating various video effects.
- compound clip
You can use compound clips to group any combination of clips in the timeline or the browser and nest clips within other clips. You can open any compound clip, edit its contents in the timeline, and then close it. Compound clips can contain video and audio clip components, clips, and other compound clips. Effectively, each compound clip can be considered a mini project, with its own distinct project settings. Compound clips function just like other clips: You can add them to your project, trim them, retime them, and add effects and transitions.
The process by which video, graphics, and audio files are reduced in size. “Lossy” compression refers to a process of reducing video file sizes through the removal of redundant or less noticeable image data. Lossless compression reduces file sizes by mathematically consolidating redundant image data without discarding it.
- connected clip
Connected clips are attached to clips in the primary storyline in the timeline. They’re useful for cutaway shots, superimposed or composited images, and sound effects. Connected clips remain attached and synced until you explicitly move or remove them. A sequence of connected clips is a storyline. See also cutaway shot.
The difference between the lightest and darkest values in an image. High-contrast images have a large range of values from the darkest shadow to the lightest highlight. Low-contrast images have a more narrow range of values, resulting in a “flatter” look.
- corner point
A point with no curves applied in a Bezier path. Adjacent line segments are linear. See also Bezier curve.
- cross dissolve
A common type of video transition, in which the first shot fades out while the second shot simultaneously fades in. During the cross dissolve, the two shots are superimposed as they fade.
A common type of audio transition, in which the first shot’s audio fades down while the second shot’s audio simultaneously fades up. During the crossfade, audio from both shots is heard.
An edit in which one clip immediately follows another, with no transition effect. This is the simplest type of edit.
- cutaway shot
A shot that is related to the current subject and occurs in the same time frame (for example, an interviewer’s reaction to what’s being said in an interview). Often, a cutaway shot is used to eliminate an unwanted visual section of another shot. The audio usually remains continuous during the cutaway, helping to make the edit less noticeable.
- data rate
The speed at which data can be transferred, often described in megabytes per second (MB/sec.) or megabits per second (Mbps). The higher a video file’s data rate, the higher quality it is, but the more system resources (processor speed, storage space, and performance) it requires. Some codecs allow you to specify a maximum data rate for a movie during capture.
- decibel (dB)
Unit of measurement for sound levels; a logarithmic scale used to describe the loudness of sound as perceived by the human ear. (1 dB corresponds approximately to the smallest volume change that the average human ear can perceive.) For digital audio, dBFS is the standard decibel unit of sound level measurement.
A set of preconfigured export settings that you can use to share a project or clip from Final Cut Pro. Destinations make it easy to export your movie for viewing on Apple devices such as iPad and iPhone, add your movie to video-sharing websites, or burn your movie to a disc. Final Cut Pro comes with a variety of destinations, and you can also modify destinations and create new destinations. You add and modify destinations in the Destinations pane of Final Cut Pro preferences.
- Disk Utility
An Apple app that performs disk-related tasks in macOS. It’s located in the Utilities folder inside the Applications folder.
The process used to combine multiple audio channels into a single stereo (or dual mono) pair. Also referred to as mixing down.
Refers to clips to the right of the current clip in the timeline. When you perform actions that ripple the project, downstream clips are affected; upstream clips are not. See also ripple edit, upstream.
- drop frame timecode
NTSC timecode that skips ahead in time by two frame numbers each minute, except every tenth minute, so that the timecode agrees with the actual elapsed clock time. (Timecode numbers are skipped, but actual video frames are not skipped.) This skipping corrects for NTSC’s actual frame rate of 29.97 fps, which causes non-drop frame timecode to lag behind actual elapsed time by 3 seconds and 18 frames per hour. To avoid confusion, drop frame timecode should be avoided in film-based productions. See also non-drop frame timecode.
- drop shadow
An effect that creates an artificial shadow behind an image. Typically used with graphics and text.
A standard-definition (SD) digital videotape recorder format that records an 8-bit, 5:1 compressed component video signal with 4:1:1 color sampling (PAL uses 4:2:0). DV supports two tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling, or four tracks of audio with 12-bit, 32 kHz audio sampling.
A standard-definition (SD) digital videotape recorder format that records an 8-bit, 5:1 compressed component video signal with 4:1:1 color sampling (PAL uses 4:2:0). DVCAM supports two tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling, or four tracks of audio with 12-bit, 32 kHz audio sampling.
A standard-definition (SD) digital videotape recorder format that records an 8-bit, 5:1 compressed component video signal using 4:1:1 color sampling (PAL uses 4:2:0). DVCPRO supports two tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling.
A standard-definition (SD) digital videotape recorder format that records an 8-bit, 3.3:1 compressed component video signal with 4:2:2 color sampling. DVCPRO50 supports four tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling.
- DVCPRO HD
A high-definition (HD) video format that records an 8-bit, compressed component video signal with 4:2:2 color sampling. Both 720p and 1080i are supported. DVCPRO HD includes up to eight tracks of audio with 16-bit, 48 kHz audio sampling. The total data rate is 115 Mbps.
A disc that is the size of a CD but that uses higher-density storage methods to significantly increase its capacity. Although usually used for video distribution, DVD-ROM discs can also be used to store computer data.
- dynamic range
The difference, in decibels, between the loudest and softest parts of a recording.
- ease in
An effect in which an object in motion decelerates slowly until it comes to a stop, rather than ending its movement abruptly. This simulates the effect of friction in the real world and generally creates a more natural, organic-looking effect than a linear movement would.
- ease out
An effect in which an object in motion accelerates from its starting position slowly rather than beginning its movement at full speed. This simulates the effect of inertia and friction in the real world and generally creates a more natural, organic-looking effect than a linear movement would.
- editing tools
A group of seven tools you can use when working in the timeline: Select tool, Trim tool, Position tool, Range Selection tool, Blade tool, Zoom tool, and Hand tool. When you choose a tool, the pointer changes to the icon for that tool.
- edit point
Edit points define the part of a clip you want to use in an edited project. Edit points include start points, which specify the beginning of a section of a clip or project, and end points, which specify the end of a section of a clip or project. An edit point is also a point in the timeline where the end point of one clip meets the start point of the next clip. This edit point can be selected for various operations.
- Effects browser
A media browser in Final Cut Pro that contains video and audio clip effects.
- embedded captions
CEA-608 captions that are included in the output media file. Viewers can turn embedded captions on or off while watching TV shows, movies, web videos, and other programs. In contrast, titles and burned-in captions are always permanently visible in the output media file.
An equalizer (commonly abbreviated as EQ) shapes the sound of incoming audio by changing the level of specific frequency bands. Equalization is one of the most commonly used audio processes, both for music projects and in video post-production work. You can use EQ to subtly or significantly shape the sound of an audio file, instrument, or project by adjusting specific frequencies or frequency ranges.
- equirectangular projection
A display of 360° video that shows all parts of a three-dimensional sphere flattened in a video frame, similar to world maps that depict the globe as a two-dimensional rectangle.
When you import video, audio, and still images, or record directly into Final Cut Pro, the source media files (your raw footage) are stored in events. An event is similar to a folder that can hold dozens, hundreds, or even thousands of video clips, audio clips, and still images, as well as projects. Each event in the library refers to media on your Mac or a storage device, and a database file keeps track of where everything is.
- event viewer
A separate video display that appears next to the main viewer and is used to play clips from the browser only.
The amount of light in video or film images. Exposure affects the overall brightness of the image as well as its perceived contrast.
A common type of transition in both video and audio. For video, a fade-out begins with a shot at full intensity and reduces until it is gone. A fade-in begins with a shot at no intensity and increases to full intensity. These are the common “fade to black” and “fade up (from black)” transitions. Audio fade-ins begin with silence and increase to full volume, and fade-outs begin at full volume and decrease to silence.
Your video clips appear as filmstrips in the timeline (where you build projects) and in the browser (where your source clips are displayed). A single video filmstrip might represent several seconds of video encompassing hundreds of video frames (individual images). Audio-only clips appear as audio waveforms, showing the change in the audio volume over time.
The trademarked Apple name for the IEEE 1394 standard. A fast and versatile interface used to connect DV camcorders to computers. FireWire is well suited to applications that move large amounts of data, and it can also be used to connect external storage devices, scanners, and other kinds of computer peripherals. See also Thunderbolt.
- Foley effects
Custom sound effects that are heavily synced to picture, such as footsteps on different surfaces, clothes rustling, fight sounds, and the handling of various noisy objects. Final Cut Pro includes a number of built-in Foley and other sound effects that you can insert as connected audio clips. See also connected clip.
A single still image. Film and video are made up of a series of these images. Although a film frame is a single photographic image, an interlaced video frame contains two fields. See also interlaced video, non-interlaced video.
- frame blending
Duplicating frames to create slow motion can result in a strobing, jittery effect. To minimize this, you can turn on Frame Blending in the Retime pop-up menu below the viewer. Frame blending creates new in-between frames, each a composite of two neighboring frames.
- frame rate
The number of images photographed per second for a video clip.
- frame size
The number of times a sound or signal vibrates each second, measured in cycles per second, or hertz (Hz). Audio recordings are made up of a vast collection of waveforms, using many different frequencies of sound. Each frequency in a recording is associated with an audio pitch. For example, the note generated by each key of a piano has a specific frequency. See also pitch.
The amount an audio or video signal is boosted. In video, this increases the white level; in audio, this increases the volume.
A curve that describes the intensity of an image. Gamma is a nonlinear function often confused with brightness or contrast. Gamma adjustment is often used to compensate for differences between Mac and Windows video graphics cards and displays.
The gamut of a particular display device represents the total range of colors that can be displayed on that device. Some types of displays are capable of displaying a greater range of colors than others. Furthermore, different video and film standards specify different color gamuts; colors that may be easily represented by one imaging medium are out of bounds for another.
- gap clip
A blank clip (containing blank video and silent audio) that you can adjust to any duration. (The film industry term for this is slug.) Gap clip color is determined by the current background color in Final Cut Pro. You can adjust the background color using the Player Background pop-up menu in the Playback pane of Final Cut Pro preferences.
Clips that are synthesized by Final Cut Pro. Generators can be used as different kinds of backgrounds, titles, and elements for visual design.
- Hand tool
The editing tool that allows you to scroll in the timeline. You can select the Hand tool by pressing the H key.
H.264/MPEG-4 Part 10 or AVC (Advanced Video Coding) is a video compression standard in widespread use for recording, distribution, and internet streaming of high-definition (HD) video.
A high-definition (HD) digital videotape recorder format that records an 8-bit, 7.1:1 DCT-compressed component video signal with 3:1:1 color sampling. HDCAM supports four tracks of audio and is recorded using 1/2-inch tape.
A format for recording high-definition (HD) video on DV tape. HDV uses MPEG-2 video compression with 8-bit samples and 4:2:0 chroma subsampling. HDV has a video bit rate of 18.3 Mbps for 720p (1280 x 720) and a bit rate of 25 Mbps for 1080i (1440 x 1080).
- HEIF (High Efficiency Image File Format)
A container format for storing still images and image sequences, defined by MPEG-H Part 12 (ISO/IEC 23008-12). HEIF was developed by the Moving Picture Experts Group (MPEG) and can store images encoded using the HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding) compression standard.
- HEVC (High Efficiency Video Coding)
A video compression standard; also known as H.265 and MPEG-H Part 2.
- high-definition (HD)
Refers to video with a higher resolution than standard-definition (SD) NTSC or PAL video. The most common HD resolutions are 1280 x 720 (720p) and 1920 x 1080 (1080i or 1080p). See also NTSC format, PAL format, standard-definition (SD), ultra-high-definition (UHD)
- high dynamic range (HDR)
High-dynamic-range (HDR) images have a greater range of luminance (extra levels of brightness) than do standard-dynamic-range (SDR) images. HDR can represent luminances as high as 10,000 nits (candelas per square meter) with a dynamic range of 14 stops or more, creating more realistic color transitions and revealing more detail in both shadows and highlights.
A video scope in Final Cut Pro that provides a statistical analysis of the image by graphing the number of pixels at each percentage of luma or color. It’s useful for comparing two clips in order to match their brightness values more closely. See also luma.
- HLG (Hybrid Log-Gamma)
One of the two supported systems in the ITU-R Rec. 2100 standard for high-dynamic-range (HDR) video. The HLG transfer function relates image signal values to scene-relative light levels and is compatible with standard-dynamic-range (SDR) displays without the need for metadata. HLG was developed by the BBC and NHK broadcasting networks.
An attribute of color perception, also known as color phase. Red, blue, yellow, and green are all hues.
The process of bringing media files of various types into events in Final Cut Pro. You can import files from connected camcorders and other devices, other apps, or connected storage devices. See also event, source media files.
A standard-definition (SD), all-I-frame MPEG-2 format stored on tape, XDCAM optical disc, or storage device. Some IMX decks can play back and convert formats such as Digital Betacam, Betacam SX, and Betacam SP to IMX. The data rate of IMX can be set to 30, 40, or 50 Mbps.
- incoming clip
The clip to which a transition segues. For example, if clip A dissolves to clip B, clip B is the incoming clip. See also outgoing clip.
- Info inspector
A Final Cut Pro inspector that displays information (called metadata) about a clip or group of clips selected in either the browser or the timeline. You can display different combinations of metadata with your clips, such as codecs, media start and end times, reel, scene, take, EXIF information, and IPTC information. You can also use the Info inspector to change the metadata for a selected clip or group of clips, and you can create custom sets of metadata for display using the Metadata Views window, accessed from the Info inspector. You also use the Info inspector to display and access project settings. See also inspectors.
- In point
See edit point.
- insert edit
A type of edit that places the source clip so that all clips after the insertion point are moved forward (or rippled) in the timeline to make room for the clip being added. No clips are removed from your project. An insert edit makes the project longer by the duration of the inserted clip.
Final Cut Pro provides a number of inspectors you can use to view and change the attributes of selected items. For example, you can adjust video effects in the Video inspector. Other inspectors include the Audio, Info, Transition, Title, Text, Generator, Library Properties, and Share inspectors. The inspectors appear in the top-right corner of the Final Cut Pro window.
- interlaced video
A scanning method that divides a video frame into two fields, each consisting of alternating odd and even lines that are scanned at different times.
An analog video signal unit of measurement for luma, established by the Institute of Radio Engineers. See also luma.
- iTT (iTunes Timed Text)
A format for delivering caption content to the iTunes Store. The iTT caption standard features formatting, color, and placement options, including a wider range of alphabets, making it the best choice for languages with non-Roman characters. iTT captions can be imported or exported as separate files. iTT caption files have the filename extension .itt.
See split edit.
A popular image file format that lets you create highly compressed graphics files. The amount of compression used can vary. Less compression results in a higher-quality image.
A control that denotes the value of a video or audio effect parameter at a particular point in the project. When two keyframes with different values are set in Final Cut Pro, a transition from one value to another is calculated, resulting in a dynamic change to that parameter. The word keyframe comes from the traditional workflow in the animation industry, where only important (key) frames of an animated sequence were drawn to sketch a character’s motion over time. After the keyframes were determined, an in-between artist drew all the frames between the keyframes.
- Keyword Collection
When you apply a keyword to a clip, a Keyword Collection is automatically created in the event in the library. When you select the Keyword Collection, each clip tagged with that keyword is displayed in the browser. See also event, keywords.
Keywords add descriptive information to a clip or clip range. You can use keywords to organize, sort, and classify media. You can add keywords to a clip manually, and Final Cut Pro can also add keywords automatically during import or clip analysis. See also Keyword Collection.
See split edit.
- Libraries sidebar
The pane in the Final Cut Pro sidebar that lists the libraries and events that contain your imported media (video, audio, and still images) and your projects. When you select an event or a library in the Libraries sidebar, its media appears as clips in the browser, and its projects appear as thumbnails. The Libraries sidebar is also the home for Final Cut Pro Keyword Collections and Smart Collections, which provide a powerful way to organize your media using keywords and persistent search filters. See also event, Keyword Collection, Smart Collection.
- linear editing
Before digital video editing, programs were edited together by copying shots from the original source tapes to a master tape, one by one. Because the assembly was linear, any changes in duration made to an earlier point of the tape required reassembling the movie from that point forward. See also nonlinear editing.
A playback mode in which clips and projects go back to the beginning whenever the playhead reaches the end of the media. You can turn looping on or off from the View menu or by pressing Command-L.
- lower third
A television industry term for a graphic placed in the lower area of the screen, usually to convey details about subjects or products. A common use of lower thirds is to identify individuals on the screen with their names and job titles.
A value describing the brightness of a video image. A luma channel is a grayscale image showing the range of brightness across the whole clip.
- luma key
An effect used to key out pixels of a certain luma value (or a range of luma values), creating a matte based on the brightest or darkest area of an image. Keying out luma values works best when your clip has a large discrepancy in exposure between the areas that you want to key out and the foreground images you want to preserve—for example, a white title on a black background. See also chroma key, matte.
An objective measurement of light corresponding to intensity weighted by the spectral sensitivity of human vision. Luminance is measured in candelas per square meter (cd/m2), often referred to as nits.
Markers flag a specific location in a clip with editing notes or other descriptive information. You can also use markers for task management. Markers are classified as standard markers (blue), chapter markers (orange), to-do items (red), or completed to-do items (green).
An image or a clip used to define areas of transparency in another clip. Similar to an alpha channel. You can create masks based on a color you choose or a shape you create. See also alpha channel.
Sometimes referred to as a holdout matte. An effect that uses information in one layer of video to affect another layer. Mattes are useful when you want to use one clip to selectively hide or reveal part of another; for example, you could use a round spotlight shape to reveal parts of a video layer. Matte effects can be used by themselves to mask out areas of a clip or to create alpha channel information for a clip—for example, to make a transparent border around the clip that can be composited against other layers. See also alpha channel, compositing.
- master file
A high-quality “master copy” of a completed project, which serves as the source media for the final stages of professional post-production or broadcast and distribution.
A generic term for elements such as movies, sounds, and pictures.
- media handle
Additional media available before the start point or after the end point of a clip in the timeline.
- media representation
In Final Cut Pro, a type of media file corresponding to a video clip. Final Cut Pro allows for three types of media representations—original source video files, optimized copies transcoded to the Apple ProRes 422 format, and proxy copies transcoded to the Apple ProRes 422 Proxy or H.264 format. You can choose to edit with optimized or proxy media to increase playback performance. See also optimized files, proxy files, source media files.
- media stems
Audio or video files that are usually exported separately for audio mixing or post-production, or to match specifications when delivering files to broadcast networks. For example, you may need to deliver a multitrack QuickTime file along with separate dialogue, music, and effects stems.
The process of adjusting the audio levels of all audio clips in an edited program, including the production audio, music, sound effects, voiceovers, and additional background ambience, to turn all of these sounds into a harmonious whole.
An image presented in shades of a single color, most often as the shades of gray in a black-and-white image.
A 360° video file that uses a single projection. This is a flat (two-dimensional) rendering that can be viewed on any screen. You can navigate monoscopic 360° video in any direction, but there’s no real depth perception; viewing monoscopic video is like looking around with only one eye open.
Refers to the MPEG-1 or MPEG-2 Audio Layer 3 compression standard and file format. Like AAC, MP3 uses perceptual audio coding and psychoacoustic compression to remove superfluous information that the human ear doesn’t hear.
- MPEG (Moving Picture Experts Group)
A group of compression standards for video and audio, which includes MPEG‑1, MPEG‑2, and MPEG‑4.
- multicam clip
A set of clips grouped together and synced by a common sync point. You can use multicam clips to edit footage from multicamera shoots or other synced footage in real time. While the active angle plays in the viewer, you can also view all angles playing simultaneously in the angle viewer and easily cut and switch between them.
An industry-standard file format for video and audio. Like QuickTime files, MXF files contain information about the media inside. This information, also called metadata, can include frame rate, frame size, creation date, and custom data created by a camera operator, assistant, or archivist. See also frame rate, resolution.
- nested sequence
See compound clip.
Short for nonlinear editor. See also nonlinear editing.
- nondestructive editing
No matter how you edit clips in Final Cut Pro, the underlying media is never touched. This is known as nondestructive editing, because none of the changes and effects you apply to your footage affect the original source media files. Clips represent your media, but they are not the media files themselves. The clips in a project simply point to (link to) the source media files on your Mac or storage device. When you modify a clip, you’re not modifying the media file, just the clip’s information in the project. Trimmed or deleted pieces of clips are removed from your project only, not from the clips in your library or from the source media files on your Mac or storage device.
- non-drop frame timecode
Timecode in which frames are numbered sequentially and no timecode numbers are dropped from the count. In the case of NTSC video, the video frame rate is actually 29.97 fps, and non-drop frame timecode is off by 3 seconds and 18 frames per hour in comparison to actual elapsed time. See also drop frame timecode, NTSC format.
- non-interlaced video
The standard representation of images on a computer. Also referred to as progressive scan. The monitor displays the image by drawing lines, one after another, from top to bottom.
- nonlinear editing
A video editing method that allows you to change the edits within a program without having to re-create the entire program. When you use a nonlinear editing application to edit a program, all footage used is stored on a computer or storage device rather than on tape. This allows random access to all video, audio, and images as you edit. See also linear editing.
- NTSC format
The video standard defined by the National Television Standards Committee, the organization that originally defined North American broadcast standards. Analog NTSC video has 525 interlaced lines per frame, a frame rate of 29.97 fps, and a limited color gamut. Digital NTSC video has a frame size of 720 x 486 pixels (720 x 480 for DV and DVD), and a frame rate of 29.97 fps. See also PAL format.
- offline editing
A post-production process in which raw footage is copied and edited without affecting the original camera media (film, tape, or file-based media). After a program has been completed in the offline edit (typically using proxy media at a lower resolution), an online edit is performed to re-create the edit using the original media.
The level of a clip’s transparency.
- optimized files
You can use Final Cut Pro to transcode your original media to create optimized files in the Apple ProRes 422 format, which provides better performance during editing, faster render times, and better color quality for compositing. See also Apple ProRes 422, media representation.
- outgoing clip
The clip a transition segues from. For example, if clip A dissolves to clip B, clip A is the outgoing clip. See also incoming clip.
- Out point
See edit point.
- overwrite edit
In an overwrite edit, one or more source clips overwrite any clips in the primary storyline or a selected storyline, starting at a range selection start point or at the skimmer or playhead position. No clip items are rippled forward, so the duration of your project remains the same. Overwriting is purely duration-based and works on range selections only, irrespective of clip boundaries. See also range, storylines.
- PAL format
Acronym for Phase Alternating Line, a 25 fps (625 lines per frame) interlaced video format used by many European countries. Digital PAL video has a frame size of 720 x 576. See also NTSC format.
The difference between the horizontal positions of the two cameras, or eyes, in stereoscopic 360° media. See also stereoscopic.
- Photos and Audio sidebar
A pane in the Final Cut Pro sidebar that provides access to all of your photo and audio collections. When you select an item in the sidebar (such as an album in Photos or a category of sound effects), the item’s contents are displayed in the browser. Depending on which apps and which version of macOS you’re using, you may see photo libraries from Photos or other photos apps, or music and sound libraries from Music, GarageBand, or Logic Pro.
Sounds are perceived as high or low depending on their frequency, or the number of times per second a sound wave cycles from positive to negative and back to positive. The word that musicians most commonly use for frequency is pitch. The higher the frequency, the higher the pitch. Modifying the speed of a clip affects the pitch of the audio. Slow motion creates low pitch, and fast motion creates high pitch.
One dot in a video or still image. The more pixels in an image, the higher the resolution. See also resolution.
A gray vertical line that marks the current position in a project in the timeline or a clip in the browser. You can move the playhead by dragging it or clicking another area of the timeline or browser. You use the playhead to scrub, or move through your project and play it back from different locations. The playhead is fixed in place unless you move it or click elsewhere. See also skimmer.
- Position tool
The editing tool that allows you to place items in the timeline. You can select the Position tool by pressing the P key.
The phase of film or video editing in which all of the production elements are organized, assembled, and output.
- PQ (Perceptual Quantizer)
A high-dynamic-range (HDR) transfer function that relates image signal values to absolute light levels produced by a display. PQ is standardized in SMPTE ST 2084 and is one of the two supported transfer functions in the ITU-R Rec. 2100 standard for HDR video. PQ is used in formats such as HDR10, HDR10+, and Dolby Vision.
A project provides a record of your editing decisions and the media you use. You build your project by adding clips and editing them in the timeline. A project is also defined by its video, audio, and rendering properties. In most cases, Final Cut Pro manages project settings automatically based on the properties of the first clip you add to a project.
- project properties
A project’s video, audio, and rendering properties. In most cases, Final Cut Pro manages a project’s properties automatically based on the properties of the first clip you add to a project. If you must modify the project properties, choose video and audio project properties based on how you intend to share your final movie with your audience.
- proxy files
You can use Final Cut Pro to transcode your original media to create proxy files, which are smaller files with a lower data rate. Proxy files can be used for offline editing or for editing when using a slower computer. Final Cut Pro creates video proxy files using either the Apple ProRes 422 Proxy or H.264 format. You can create proxy media in a variety of frame sizes from 12.5 percent to 100 percent of the original. See also Apple ProRes 422 Proxy, H.264, media representation.
Cross-platform multimedia technology from Apple. Widely used for production, post-production, and distribution of video, audio, and interactive programs.
Instead of selecting whole clips, you can select a range within any clip in the timeline or the browser. You can trim range selections, mark them with ratings and keywords, and modify them in other ways. You can adjust the range start and end points by dragging either side of the selection. In the timeline, you can also select a range that spans multiple clips. In the browser, you can set multiple ranges within one or more clips, and you can select and deselect ranges after you set them.
- Range Selection tool
The editing tool that allows you to select a range in the timeline. You can select the Range Selection tool by pressing the R key.
- Rec. 2020
Short for Rec. ITU-R Recommendation BT.2020, a color space standard with a very large gamut (range of color).
- Rec. 709
Short for ITU-R Recommendation BT.709, the standard broadcast format for high-definition (HD) television.
A standard video file, as opposed to a spherical 360° video file that has equirectangular projection (showing all parts of a three-dimensional sphere flattened in a video frame, similar to world maps that depict the globe as a two-dimensional rectangle).
- red laser media
Traditional DVD burners and players use a red laser when working with DVD media. Blu-ray burners and players use a blue laser when working with Blu-ray media. The blue laser has a shorter wavelength, making it possible to store more data on a disc. See also blue laser media.
To process video and audio with any applied effects or transitions, and store the result on your Mac or storage device as a render file. These render files are stored with your Final Cut Pro event and project files. When you publish or export a project, it’s also rendered to create the output files.
- replace edit
In a replace edit, a source selection replaces a clip in your project in the timeline. In contrast to overwrite edits, replacing works on whole timeline clips only and can change the duration of your project.
Also referred to as frame size. Refers to the number of pixels in an image. Resolution is expressed in terms of the width and height of the image in pixels (for example, 640 x 360 pixels). Higher-resolution images contain more detail but also create larger files that take longer to download. Your electronic devices (computer, iPhone, iPad, iPod, and so on) also have screen resolution. Ideally, you should match the image resolution of your media to the resolution of your playback device.
Reverberation, or reverb, refers to the reflection pattern created by sound waves bouncing off the surfaces—walls, ceilings, windows, and so on—of any space, or off objects within a space, gradually dying out until they’re inaudible. Final Cut Pro includes a variety of audio effects that add reverb to the sound of a clip.
An extension to the WAV file format that allows for files larger than 4 GB.
Abbreviation for Red, Green, Blue. A color space commonly used on computers, in which each color is described by the strength of its red, green, and blue components. This color space directly translates to the red, green, and blue phosphors used in computer displays. The RGB color space has a very large gamut, meaning it can reproduce a very wide range of colors. This range is typically larger than the range that can be reproduced for broadcast.
- ripple edit
The default type of trim in Final Cut Pro is a ripple edit (also called a ripple trim), which adjusts a clip’s start point or end point without leaving a gap in the timeline. The change in the clip’s duration ripples outward, moving all subsequent clips earlier or later in the timeline. Similarly, if you delete a clip from the timeline, subsequent clips ripple earlier to close the gap. Ripple edits affect the trimmed clip, the position of all subsequent clips in the timeline, and the total duration of your project.
Metadata text and color labels that you assign to clips in the browser or the timeline. Roles provide a flexible and powerful way to manage your editing workflow. You can use roles in Final Cut Pro to organize clips in your events and projects, control the appearance of the timeline, and export separate video or audio files (also known as media stems) for broadcast delivery, audio mixing, or post-production. Roles have distinct colors that let you instantly recognize clips with a particular role in the browser and the timeline.
- roll edit
An edit that affects two clips that share an edit point. For example, if clip A cuts to clip B, a roll edit simultaneously adjusts the end point of clip A and the start point of clip B by the same amount. The overall duration of the project stays the same.
- rough edit
The first editing pass. The rough cut is an early version of a movie that pulls together its basic elements. Often, a rough edit is performed prior to adding transitions, titles, and other effects.
A measurement of the intensity of color in the video signal.
A series of shots that take place at the same time and in the same location. A series of scenes make up a program.
- Select tool
The default arrow-shaped pointer that allows you to select items in the timeline. For example, you use it to select a clip or edit point. You can select the Select tool by pressing the A key.
- shortcut menu
A menu you access by holding down the Control key and clicking an item on the screen, or by pressing the right mouse button. Sometimes called a contextual menu.
A segment of continuously recorded video. A shot is the smallest unit of a program.
The sidebar appears to the left of the browser and contains three panes for selecting different types of media: the Libraries sidebar, the Photos and Audio sidebar, and the Titles and Generators sidebar. When you select an item in a sidebar pane (such as an event containing clips, or a category of sound effects or 3D titles), its contents are displayed in the browser. You can show or hide any of the sidebars.
A red vertical line that appears as you move the pointer over clips in the browser and timeline to preview them. You use the skimmer to skim, or freely move over clips to play them back at the position and speed of the pointer. You can skim clips without affecting the playhead position. If you have snapping turned on, the skimmer turns orange when it snaps to a position. See also playhead, snapping.
A shot at the beginning of a scene that identifies the scene with basic production information such as the take, date, and scene number. A clapper provides an audiovisual cue for syncing when video and audio are recorded separately.
- slide edit
An edit in which an entire clip is moved, along with the edit points on its left and right. The duration of the clip being moved stays the same, but the clips to the left and right of it change in length to accommodate the new position of the clip. The overall duration of the project and of these three clips remains the same.
- slip edit
An edit in which the location of both the start and end points of a project clip are changed at the same time, without changing the position or duration of the clip. This is referred to as slipping, because you slip the clip’s start and end points inside the available footage. The portion of the clip seen in the project changes, but its position in the timeline stays the same.
- Smart Collection
When you search for clips in an event using the Filter window, you can save your results by creating a new Smart Collection that gathers clips matching the search criteria. Whenever a new clip that matches the Smart Collection’s search criteria is brought into the event, the new clip is automatically added to the Smart Collection. Clips that appear in Smart Collections are not duplicates. Smart Collections filter clips in an event to help you focus on the clips you need to use for a specific task. See also event.
When snapping is turned on in Final Cut Pro, items you move in the timeline (including the playhead, the skimmer, and selected clips) appear to jump, or “snap,” directly to certain points in the timeline. This can help you quickly line up edits with other items in the project. Snapping affects the functions of many of the editing tools in Final Cut Pro, including the Select tool, the Trim tool, the Position tool, the Range Selection tool, and the Blade tool. You can disable snapping when frame-by-frame precision editing is required.
- sound effects
Specific audio material, such as the sound of a door closing or a dog barking, from effects libraries or from clips you recorded. Sound effects can be used to replace sounds in the location audio of a program, or to add sound that wasn’t originally recorded. Over 1300 royalty-free sound effects are included with Final Cut Pro as a separate download.
- source media files
The original files (video, audio, and still images or graphics) that you import into Final Cut Pro. A clip you use in Final Cut Pro points to the location where the source media file is stored (either on your Mac, a storage device, or a camcorder, camera, or device). Changes made to clips within Final Cut Pro do not affect the source media files.
- special effects
Visual effects applied to clips and projects, such as motion, compositing, keying, and retiming effects.
- spill suppression
A color correction operation that neutralizes any green or blue fringing or light bounce that’s tinting the subject being keyed. Spill suppression works by applying the complementary (opposite) color of the color that’s being made transparent.
- split edit
Final Cut Pro allows you to set separate video and audio start and end points in an individual clip. These edits, known as split edits, are a common technique in most dialogue scenes in films and television shows. You can use split edits to introduce the sound of a new shot or scene before cutting to the video of that shot or scene. Conversely, you can use a split edit to extend the audio of a shot over a subsequent shot.
- SRT (SubRip Text)
A subtitle format supported by Facebook, YouTube, and Vimeo. The SRT format is simple: Each caption has a number, a start and end timecode (in decimal timecode), and one or more lines of text. SRT captions can be imported or exported as separate files. Unlike captions in other formats, exported SRT captions can be read and edited in a plain text editor. SRT caption files have the filename extension .srt.
- standard-definition (SD)
Refers to the original NTSC and PAL video frame sizes. NTSC uses 480 or 486 active lines per frame, and PAL uses 576 active lines. See also high-definition (HD).
- standard dynamic range (SDR)
The conventional technique for processing luminance (brightness) and color values in images, developed in the mid-1900s, with a nominal maximum brightness of 100 nits (candelas per square meter) and a dynamic range of 6 to 10 stops. Some newer imaging devices can display high-dynamic-range (HDR) images, representing a much wider range of brightness levels.
Short for stereophonic, which describes audio that contains two different channels. Audio level changes are automatically made to both channels at the same time.
A 360° video file that is split into two views designated for the left and right eyes. This type of video is designed to be viewed through a special headset or glasses that can project each of the two views into the appropriate eye. Stereoscopic video simulates the depth perception (in three dimensions) that people experience in the real world when they have two eyes open.
All instances of the timeline contain a primary storyline, which is the main sequence of clips you build to create your movie. Storylines are sequences of clips connected to the primary storyline. You can use storylines for the same purposes as connected clips (such as creating cutaways, compositing titles and other graphics, and adding sound effects and music). See also compositing, cutaway shot.
- straight cut
A cut in which both the video and audio clip items are cut at the same time.
A subframe has 1/80 the duration of a video frame and is thus a more precise unit of reference when editing audio at the sample level.
- sync (synchronization)
The relationship between the image of a sound being made in a video clip (for example, a person talking) and the corresponding sound in an audio clip. Maintaining audio sync is critical when editing dialogue. In Final Cut Pro, connected clips and compound clips help maintain sync in your program. See also compound clip, connected clip.
I/O technology that supports high-resolution displays and high-performance data devices through a single, compact port.
- three-point editing
An editing technique in which three out of four edit points are set in a source selection and a project. When the edit is performed, the fourth edit point is calculated automatically in Final Cut Pro. See also edit point.
- through edit
An edit point in which the video or audio content on either side of the edit is continuous. See also edit point.
- TIFF (Tagged Image File Format)
A widely used bitmapped graphics file format, developed by Aldus and Microsoft, that handles monochrome, grayscale 8- and 24-bit color. TIFF supports alpha channels. See also alpha channel.
A signal recorded with your video that uniquely identifies each frame. By default, timecode appears in Final Cut Pro in the format hours: minutes: seconds: frames. Timecode supports a variety of functions in Final Cut Pro, including timeline playback, syncing video and audio clip items, navigating through projects in the timeline, and moving and trimming clips.
The bottom portion of the Final Cut Pro window contains the timeline, where you create your movie project by adding and arranging clips and making all your edits.
- timeline index
You can view a text-based, chronological list of the clips, keywords, and markers in a project using the timeline index. When you select an item in the timeline index, the playhead jumps to that item in the timeline. You can also use the Roles pane of the timeline index to organize clips in the timeline by role. See also keywords, markers, roles.
A color shade added to an image, usually to create an effect. For example, adding a sepia tone creates the effect of old photos or film footage.
- Titles and Generators sidebar
A pane in the Final Cut Pro sidebar that provides access to all the title effects and video generators included with Final Cut Pro. When you select an item in the sidebar (such as a category of 3D titles), the item’s contents are displayed in the browser.
The bar at the top of the Final Cut Pro window with buttons and tools for common tasks such as showing or hiding the main areas of Final Cut Pro and sharing your project.
To convert a media file to a different format (such as DV, H.264, or MPEG-2) or change its properties (such as video frame size and frame rate, data rate, and audio sample rate). Compressor, an Apple app designed to work with Final Cut Pro, makes transcoding media files a fast and easy process.
Effects that are applied to edit points to smooth out the change from one clip to the next. In Final Cut Pro, you can choose from a variety of video transitions, such as a dissolves or wipes, or you can add an audio crossfade between audio clips.
- Transitions browser
A media browser in Final Cut Pro that provides access to all the video transitions included with Final Cut Pro.
After you’ve assembled your clips in rough chronological order in the timeline, you begin to fine-tune the cut points (or edit points) between clips. Any time you make a clip in a project longer or shorter, you’re trimming that clip. In Final Cut Pro, you can use a variety of techniques to trim timeline clips and edit points, including ripple edits, roll edits, slip edits, and slide edits.
- Trim tool
The editing tool that allows you to trim items in the timeline. You can select the Trim tool by pressing the T key.
- ultra-high-definition (UHD)
Refers to video with a minimum resolution of 3840 x 2160 pixels. See also high-definition (HD).
- uncompressed 8- and 10-bit 4:2:2
Video formats that can be used to store 8-bit or 10-bit 4:2:2 Y'CbCr video without employing data compression. Bypassing compression reduces the computer’s processing load but increases the data rate considerably. A large-capacity RAID storage system is typically required to work effectively with uncompressed video. In many cases, Apple ProRes is a better choice. The data rate of uncompressed 4:2:2 video varies according to frame size and frame rate. As an example, at a frame size of 1920 x 1080 and a frame rate of 29.97 fps, the data rate is 1.0 Gbps for uncompressed 8-bit 4:2:2 video and 1.3 Gbps for uncompressed 10-bit 4:2:2 video.
- value slider
A type of numerical slider control that appears as a number, often to the right of a basic slider. There are two ways to adjust a value slider: by dragging over the number to decrease or increase the parameter value, or by double-clicking the number and entering a new value.
- variable speed
Speed that varies dynamically, in forward or reverse motion, in a single clip.
Abbreviation for videocassette recorder. Generally refers to consumer equipment used for recording video from various sources. Sometimes referred to as a VTR. See also VTR.
A video scope in Final Cut Pro that shows the distribution of color in your image on a circular scale. The vectorscope is useful for comparing the hue and intensity of colors between two clips for the purposes of color correction. See also hue.
- Video Animation editor
You can show the Video Animation editor for clips in the timeline to adjust effect parameters, create fade-ins or fade-outs, or change effects over time using keyframes. See also Audio Animation editor, keyframe.
When you play clips selected in the browser and the timeline, they appear in the viewer.
Abbreviation for videotape recorder. Generally refers to professional equipment used for recording video from various sources.
A visible graphic or text overlay applied to an image or video clip to indicate that it’s protected by a copyright. Watermarks are used to discourage the use of images or video clips without the copyright holder’s explicit permission.
- WAVE (or WAV)
An audio file format most commonly used for storing uncompressed linear pulse code modulation (LPCM) audio data.
- waveform monitor
A video scope in Final Cut Pro that displays the relative levels of luma and chroma in the clip currently being examined. Spikes and dips in the displayed waveforms correspond to light or dark areas in your picture. See also chroma, luma.
To make adjustments to a video signal being recorded in order to reproduce white as true white. For example, if the white in a shot is too yellow because of incandescent lighting, white-balancing adds enough blue to make the white appear neutral.
Any movie presentation that has an aspect ratio wider than 4:3. In movie theaters, 1.85 is considered standard and 2.40 is considered widescreen. For video, 4:3 is considered standard and 16:9 (which is almost the same aspect ratio as 1.85) is considered widescreen. See also 4:3, 16:9.
A common type of video transition. In a wipe, the screen splits, moving from one side of the image to the other to gradually reveal the next shot. A wipe is more obvious (and customizable) than a fade or cross dissolve. See also cross dissolve, fade.
- XDCAM EX
A member of the Sony XDCAM product family that uses MPEG-2 video compression with 4:2:0 chroma sampling. In contrast to XDCAM HD, XDCAM EX supports 720p and records full HD resolution (either 1920 x 1080 or 1280 x 720). Its maximum bit rate is 35 Mbps. Instead of optical discs, XDCAM EX camcorders use solid-state memory cards known as SxS cards. See also chroma, HDV.
- XDCAM HD422
A member of the Sony XDCAM product family featuring 4:2:2 chroma sampling and a video bit rate of 50 Mbps. Like XDCAM EX, XDCAM HD422 uses MPEG-2 video compression at full HD resolution (either 1920 x 1080 or 1280 x 720). See also chroma, HDV.
The color space in which many digital video formats store data. Three components are stored for each pixel—one for luma (Y) and two for color information (Cb for the blue difference signal and Cr for the red difference signal). Also referred to as YUV. See also luma, pixel.
- Zoom tool
The editing tool that allows you to zoom in to or out of the timeline. You can select the Zoom tool by pressing the Z key.