# Keyboard shortcuts in Grapher on Mac

In the Grapher app on your Mac, quickly accomplish many tasks using keyboard shortcuts.

You can also choose Window > Show Equation Palette, or use the Add Elements pop-up menu to the right of the Equation field to insert special operators or characters. To see a complete list of all supported constants and functions, choose Help > Show Built-In Definitions.

## Special characters

Operator or character | Shortcut | ||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Fraction (½) | / | ||||||||||

Exponent or superscript (x³) | ^ | ||||||||||

Index or subscript (k0) | _ (underscore) | ||||||||||

Square root (√2) | Option-V | ||||||||||

Root (³√27) | Shift-Option-V | ||||||||||

Sum () | Option-W | ||||||||||

Product ( ∏ ) | Shift-Option-P | ||||||||||

Integral ( ∫ ) | Option-B | ||||||||||

Pi () | Option-P |

## Equation tips

Task | Tips | ||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Enter equations and functions | Type them as you would ordinarily write them. For example, x = 2y or f(t) = 1 + 3t | ||||||||||

Enter a constant value | Use = or :=. For example, k = 1 or k :=1 | ||||||||||

Enter multiple values for a constant | Enclose the values in braces. For example, k = { 1, 2, 3 } | ||||||||||

Enter a range of values | Use ellipses (...). For example, k = { 1...10 } or k = { 0, 5, 10...15 } | ||||||||||

Combine definitions | Use a comma. For example, x = 1 + cos(3k-y), k={ 1...5 } |

## 3D graphs

Action | Shortcut | ||||||||||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

Move | Press and hold the Command key as you drag. | ||||||||||

Rotate | Press and hold the Option key as you drag. | ||||||||||

Zoom in and out | Press and hold the Shift key as you drag. |