Cisco IPsec VPN set-up for Apple devices
Use this section to configure your Cisco VPN server for use with iOS, iPadOS and macOS, all of which support the Cisco network firewalls Adaptive Security Appliance 5500 Series and Private Internet Exchange. iOS, iPadOS and macOS also support Cisco IOS VPN routers with IOS version 12.4(15)T or later. VPN 3000 Series Concentrators don’t support VPN capabilities.
iOS, iPadOS and macOS support the following authentication methods:
Pre-shared key IPsec authentication with user authentication using the
Client and server certificates for IPsec authentication, with optional user authentication using
Hybrid authentication, where the server provides a certificate and the client provides a pre-shared key for IPsec authentication. User authentication is required and provided using
xauth, which includes the authentication method’s username with password, and RSA SecurID.
The Cisco Unity protocol uses authentication groups to group users based on a common set of parameters. You should create an authentication group for users. For pre-shared key and hybrid authentication, the group name must be configured on the device with the group’s shared secret (pre-shared key) as the group password.
When using certificate authentication, there’s no shared secret. A user’s group is determined from fields in the certificate. The Cisco server settings can be used to map fields in a certificate to user groups.
RSA-Sig must be the highest priority on the ISAKMP (Internet Security Association and Key Management Protocol) priority list.
IPsec settings and descriptions
You can specify these settings to define how IPsec is implemented:
Mode: Tunnel mode.
IKE exchange modes: Aggressive mode for pre-shared key and hybrid authentication, or Main mode for certificate authentication.
Encryption algorithms: 3DES, AES-128 or AES256.
Authentication algorithms: HMAC-MD5 or HMAC-SHA1.
Diffie-Hellman Groups: Group 2 is required for pre-shared key and hybrid authentication, group 2 with 3DES and AES-128 for certificate authentication, and group 2 or 5 with AES-256.
Perfect Forward Secrecy (PFS): For IKE phase 2, if PFS is used, the Diffie-Hellman Group must be the same as was used for IKE phase 1.
Mode configuration: Must be enabled.
Dead peer detection: Recommended.
Standard NAT traversal: Supported and can be enabled (IPsec over TCP isn’t supported).
Load balancing: Supported and can be enabled.
Rekeying of phase 1: Not currently supported. It’s recommend that rekeying times on the server be set to one hour.
ASA address mask: Make sure all device address pool masks are either not set, or set to 255.255.255.255. For example:
asa(config-webvpn)# ip local pool vpn_users 10.0.0.1-10.0.0.254 mask 255.255.255.255.
If you use the recommended address mask, some routes assumed by the VPN configuration might be ignored. To avoid this, make sure your routing table contains all necessary routes, and make sure the subnet addresses are accessible before deployment.
Application version: The client software version is sent to the server, letting the server accept or reject connections based on the device’s software version.
Banner: The banner (if configured on the server) is displayed on the device, and the user must accept it or disconnect.
Split tunnel: Supported.
Split DNS: Supported.
Default domain: Supported.