Intro to encryption and data protection
The secure boot chain, system security, and app security capabilities all help to ensure that only trusted code and apps run on a device. Apple devices have additional encryption features to safeguard user data, even when other parts of the security infrastructure have been compromised (for example, if a device is lost or is running untrusted code). All of these features benefit both users and IT administrators, protecting personal and corporate information at all times and providing methods for instant and complete remote wipe in the case of device theft or loss.
iOS and iPadOS devices use a file encryption methodology called Data Protection, while the data on Mac computers is protected with a volume encryption technology called FileVault. Both models similarly root their key management hierarchies in the dedicated silicon of the Secure Enclave (on devices that include a SEP), and both models leverage a dedicated AES engine to support line-speed encryption and to ensure that long-lived encryption keys never need to be provided to the kernel OS or CPU (where they might be compromised).
In addition, the operating system kernels enforce access controls to prevent unauthorized access to data. These controls most often take the form of sandboxing apps (which restricts what data an app can access), as well as enforcing Data Vaults. Data Vaults can be thought of as inverted sandboxes. Rather than restricting the calls an app can make, Data Vaults restrict access to the protected data (again, enforced by the kernel independent of file encryption) regardless of whether the originating process is itself sandboxed or not.