When you purchase content from the VPP store for your school or business, you can distribute your purchases directly to your users in one of three ways: User Assignment, Device Assignment, and Redemption codes.
User Assignment and Device Assignment are types of Managed Distribution.
|User Assignment||Device Assignment|
|Distribution of free apps†||✓||✓|
|Distribution of paid apps||✓||✓||✓|
|Distribution of free books||✓|
|Distrubution of paid books||✓||✓|
|Mobile Device Management (MDM) used for distribution††||✓||✓||✓|
|If apps are revoked or reassigned, the organization retains ownership||✓||✓|
|Apple ID isn't required for access to apps||✓|
|Content is available across multiple devices in purchase history||✓||✓|
|Content is available via family sharing||✓|
†Free apps are available as redeemable codes solely for custom B2B apps.
††Some MDMs may support managed distribution and/or redeemable codes. Contact your MDM provider for more information on the requirements.
If you want to switch from redeemable codes to managed distribution
If you are currently using redeemable codes and you want to use managed distribution, learn how to migrate to managed distribution.
If your new VPP purchases don’t show up for assignment in your MDM tool
VPP server tokens are valid for one calendar year after initial download. Before the year is up, you need to go to the Account Summary section on the VPP Store to obtain a new token. You also need to perform these steps if you ever change your password.
If you want to use managed distribution, but don’t have an MDM solution
For more information on managing devices, visit:
Some apps and books might not be available subject to country or region and developer opt-in. See program and content availability.
2As part of macOS Server.