Use Apple products on enterprise networks

Learn which hosts and ports are required to use your Apple products on enterprise networks.

This article is intended for enterprise and education network administrators.

Apple products require access to the internet hosts in this article for a variety of services. Here's how your devices connect to hosts and work with proxies:

  • Network connections to the hosts below are initiated by the device, not by hosts operated by Apple.
  • Apple services will fail any connection that uses HTTPS Interception (SSL Inspection). If the HTTPS traffic traverses a web proxy, disable HTTPS Interception for the hosts listed in this article.

Make sure your Apple devices can access the hosts listed below.

Apple Push Notifications

Learn how to troubleshoot connecting to the Apple Push Notification service (APNs). For devices that send all traffic through an HTTP proxy, you can configure the proxy either manually on the device or with a configuration profile. Beginning with macOS 10.15.5, devices can connect to APNs when configured to use the HTTP proxy with a proxy auto-config (PAC) file.

Device setup

Access to the following hosts might be required when setting up your device, or when installing, updating, or restoring the operating system.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
albert.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Device activation Yes
captive.apple.com 443, 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Internet connectivity validation for networks that use captive portals Yes
gs.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS   Yes
humb.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS   Yes
static.ips.apple.com 443, 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS   Yes
sq-device.apple.com 443 TCP iOS and iPadOS eSIM activation
tbsc.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS   Yes
time-ios.apple.com 123 UDP iOS, iPadOS, and tvOS Used by devices to set their date and time
time.apple.com 123 UDP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Used by devices to set their date and time
time-macos.apple.com 123 UDP macOS only Used by devices to set their date and time

Device Management

Network access to the following hosts might be required for devices enrolled in Mobile Device Management (MDM).

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
*.push.apple.com 443, 80, 5223, 2197 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Push notifications Learn more about APNs and proxies.
deviceenrollment.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS DEP provisional enrollment
deviceservices-external.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS  
gdmf.apple.com
443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Used by an MDM server to identify which software updates are available to devices that use managed software updates Yes
identity.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS APNs certificate request portal Yes
iprofiles.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Hosts enrollment profiles used when devices enroll in Apple School Manager or Apple Business Manager through Device Enrollment Yes
mdmenrollment.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS MDM servers to upload enrollment profiles used by clients enrolling through Device Enrollment in Apple School Manager or Apple Business Manager, and to look up devices and accounts Yes
setup.icloud.com 443 TCP iOS and iPadOS Required to log in with a Managed Apple ID on Shared iPad
vpp.itunes.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS MDM servers to perform operations related to Apps and Books, like assigning or revoking licenses on a device Yes

Apple School Manager and Apple Business Manager

Network access to the following hosts as well as the hosts in the App Store section is required for full functionality of Apple School Manager and Apple Business Manager.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
*.business.apple.com
443, 80 TCP - Apple Business Manager -
*.school.apple.com 443, 80 TCP - Schoolwork Roster service -
isu.apple.com
443, 80 TCP -   -
ws-ee-maidsvc.icloud.com 443, 80 TCP - Schoolwork Roster service -

Software updates

Make sure you can access the following ports for updating macOS, apps from the Mac App Store, and for using content caching.

macOS, iOS, and tvOS

Network access to the following hostnames is required for installing, restoring, and updating macOS, iOS, and tvOS.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
appldnld.apple.com 80 TCP iOS and iPadOS iOS updates
configuration.apple.com 443 TCP macOS only Rosetta 2 updates
gdmf.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Software update catalog
gg.apple.com 443, 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS iOS, tvOS, and macOS updates Yes
gnf-mdn.apple.com 443 TCP macOS only macOS updates Yes
gnf-mr.apple.com 443 TCP macOS only macOS updates Yes
gs.apple.com 443, 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS updates Yes
ig.apple.com 443 TCP macOS only macOS updates Yes
mesu.apple.com 443, 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Hosts software update catalogs
ns.itunes.apple.com 443 TCP iOS and iPadOS   Yes
oscdn.apple.com 443, 80 TCP macOS only macOS Recovery
osrecovery.apple.com 443, 80 TCP macOS only macOS Recovery
skl.apple.com 443 TCP macOS only macOS updates
swcdn.apple.com 80 TCP macOS only macOS updates
swdist.apple.com 443 TCP macOS only macOS updates
swdownload.apple.com 443, 80 TCP macOS only macOS updates Yes
swpost.apple.com 80 TCP macOS only macOS updates Yes
swscan.apple.com 443 TCP macOS only macOS updates
updates-http.cdn-apple.com 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Software update downloads
updates.cdn-apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Software update downloads
xp.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS   Yes

App Store

Access to the following hosts might be required for updating apps.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
*.itunes.apple.com 443, 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Store content such as apps, books, and music Yes
*.apps.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Store content such as apps, books, and music Yes
*.mzstatic.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Store content such as apps, books, and music
itunes.apple.com 443, 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS   Yes
ppq.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Enterprise App validation

Carrier updates

Cellular devices must be able to connect to the following hosts to install carrier bundle updates.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
appldnld.apple.com 80 TCP iOS and iPadOS Cellular carrier bundle updates
appldnld.apple.com.edgesuite.net 80 TCP iOS and iPadOS Cellular carrier bundle updates
itunes.com 80 TCP iOS and iPadOS Carrier bundle update discovery
itunes.apple.com 443 TCP iOS and iPadOS Carrier bundle update discovery
updates-http.cdn-apple.com 80 TCP iOS and iPadOS Cellular carrier bundle updates
updates.cdn-apple.com 443 TCP iOS and iPadOS Cellular carrier bundle updates

 

Content caching

A Mac that provides content caching must be able to connect to the following hosts, as well as the hosts listed in this document that provide Apple content such as software updates, apps, and additional content.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
lcdn-registration.apple.com 443 TCP macOS only Server registration Yes
suconfig.apple.com 80 TCP macOS only

Configuration
xp-cdn.apple.com 443 TCP macOS only Reporting Yes

Clients of macOS content caching must be able to connect to the following hosts.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
lcdn-locator.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Content caching locator service
serverstatus.apple.com
443 TCP macOS only Content caching client public IP determination

Apple Developer

Access to the following hosts is required for app notarization and app validation.

App notarization

Starting with macOS 10.14.5, software is checked for notarization before it will run. In order for this check to succeed, a Mac must be able to access the same hosts listed in the Ensure Your Build Server Has Network Access section of Customizing the Notarization Workflow.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
17.248.128.0/18 443 TCP macOS only Ticket delivery
17.250.64.0/18 443 TCP macOS only Ticket delivery
17.248.192.0/19 443 TCP macOS only Ticket delivery

App validation

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
*.appattest.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, and macOS App validation, Touch ID and Face ID authentication for websites -

Feedback Assistant

Feedback Assistant is an app used by developers and members of the beta software programs to report feedback to Apple. It uses the following hosts:

Hosts Port Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
bpapi.apple.com 443 TCP tvOS only Provides beta software updates Yes
cssubmissions.apple.com
443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Used by Feedback Assistant to upload files

Yes
fba.apple.com

443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS

Used by Feedback Assistant to file and view feedback

Yes

Apple diagnostics

Apple devices might access the following host in order to perform diagnostics used to detect a possible hardware issue.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
diagassets.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Used by Apple devices to help detect possible hardware issues Yes

Domain Name System resolution

In order to use encrypted Domain Name System (DNS) resolution in iOS 14, tvOS 14, and macOS Big Sur, the following host will be contacted.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
doh.dns.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Used for DNS over HTTPS (DoH) Yes

Certificate validation

Apple devices must be able to connect to the following hosts to validate digital certificates used by the hosts in this article.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
certs.apple.com 80, 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Certificate validation
crl.apple.com 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Certificate validation
crl.entrust.net 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Certificate validation
crl3.digicert.com 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Certificate validation
crl4.digicert.com 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Certificate validation
ocsp.apple.com 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Certificate validation
ocsp.digicert.cn 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Certificate validation in China
ocsp.digicert.com 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Certificate validation
ocsp.entrust.net 80 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Certificate validation
ocsp2.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Certificate validation
valid.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Certificate validation Yes

 

Apple ID

Apple devices must be able to connect to the following hosts in order to authenticate an Apple ID. This is required for all services that use an Apple ID, such as iCloud, app installation, and Xcode.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
appleid.apple.com
443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS
Apple ID authentication in Settings and System Preferences
Yes
appleid.cdn-apple.com
443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS
Apple ID authentication in Settings and System Preferences
Yes
idmsa.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Apple ID authentication Yes
gsa.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS Apple ID authentication Yes

iCloud

In addition to the Apple ID hosts listed above, Apple devices must be able to connect to hosts in the following domains to use iCloud services.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
*.apple-cloudkit.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS iCloud services
*.apple-livephotoskit.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS iCloud services
*.apzones.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS iCloud services in China
*.cdn-apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS iCloud services
*.gc.apple.com
443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS
iCloud services
*.icloud.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS iCloud services
*.icloud.com.cn
443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS
iCloud services in China
*.icloud.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS iCloud services
*.icloud-content.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS iCloud services
*.iwork.apple.com 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, tvOS, and macOS iWork documents

 

Additional content

Apple devices must be able to connect to the following hosts to download additional content. Some additional content might also be hosted on third-party content distribution networks.

Hosts Ports Protocol OS Description Supports proxies
audiocontentdownload.apple.com 80, 443 TCP iOS, iPadOS, and macOS GarageBand downloadable content
devimages-cdn.apple.com
80, 443 TCP macOS only Xcode downloadable components
download.developer.apple.com 80, 443 TCP macOS only Xcode downloadable components
playgrounds-assets-cdn.apple.com 443 TCP iPadOS and macOS Swift Playgrounds
playgrounds-cdn.apple.com 443 TCP iPadOS and macOS Swift Playgrounds
sylvan.apple.com
80, 443 TCP tvOS only
Apple TV screen savers

Firewalls

If your firewall supports using hostnames, you might be able to use most Apple services above by allowing outbound connections to *.apple.com. If your firewall can only be configured with IP addresses, allow outbound connections to 17.0.0.0/8. The entire 17.0.0.0/8 address block is assigned to Apple.

HTTP proxy

You can use Apple services through a proxy if you disable packet inspection and authentication for traffic to and from the listed hosts. Exceptions to this are noted above. Attempts to perform content inspection on encrypted communications between Apple devices and services will result in a dropped connection to preserve platform security and user privacy.

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