Activity Monitor may show that a system process named kernel_task is using a large percentage of your CPU, and during this time you may notice more fan activity.
One of the functions of kernel_task is to help manage CPU temperature by making the CPU less available to processes that are using it intensely. In other words, kernel_task responds to conditions that cause your CPU to become too hot, even if your Mac doesn't feel hot to you. It does not cause those conditions itself. When the CPU temperature decreases, kernel_task automatically reduces its activity.